Carbon Capture and Storgage (CCS)
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one possible approach for reducing Co2 levels in the atmosphere. It addresses CO2 emissions generated by human activities - primarily the combustion of fossil fuels in power generation.
CCS makes use of different technologies to collect and concentrate CO2, transport it to an appropriate location, and store it away from the atmosphere for a long period of time. The best targets for implementing carbon capture are large stationary sources of CO2 emissions that are not too distant from an appropriate storage site.
According to the International Energy Agency, CCS is one of the most promising options for mitigating emissions from coal-fired power plants and other industrial facilities.
Three Processes of CCS
Capture: Carbon capture separates CO2 from other gases involved in combustion and concentrates it in a nearly pure stream suitable for transport. There are three main approaches to carbon dioxide capture:
Transport: Transportation of CO2 is similar to transportation of natural gas. The technologies involved are mature and commercially available via:
Road or rail
Storage: Storage sequesters CO2 away from the atmosphere for a long period of time; the goal is 1% or less leakage for thousands of years.
(World Energy Outlook - 2007)